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3 – Op Amp: Characteristic Equation And Curve

The mathematical model that describes the behavior of any Operational Amplifier is expressed by the following equation:

V_{OUT}=A\cdot \left( V_{+}-V_{-} \right)

Its meaning is simple: output voltage is equal to the difference between input voltages amplified by a positive factor A (called open-loop gain).

Usually the voltage difference between inputs is a value that is referred to as vD:


This value is also referred to as differential voltage input.

So the characteristic equation of operational amplifiers can also be written as follows:

V_{OUT}=A\cdot v_{D}

From the above it follows that different inputs may correspond to the same output.