## Astable – The completion

This is the last circuit proposed as working for an astable multi-vibrator.
It's now time to understand why this can or not correctly operate and if some issues are still present.

Due to the presence of R and C for each branch we're sure that the timing feature is somehow guaranteed; but how exactly is a matter we're going to see.

As already said at the switch-on one of bjts surely goes in saturation before the other which is so forced to go to interdiction.
We added the capacitors not only to make a timer as proposed but to alternates the http://cialisbuy.net/ states for the outputs too.

Let's suppose bjt2 wins the lottery and goes to saturation: its collector drops form Vcc to nearly 0.2V.
Due to the transitory nature of this falling signal, the capacitor won't block it at first instance so that it (the drop ofÂ  ~Vcc) will be replicated at its other top which connects directly to base1, the new value of which becomes:

newVb1 = Vb1 - ~Vcc

## Astable – The parameters

What essentially is an astable circuit useful for?
Just by thinking at its behaviour it can be considered a rudimentary timer with its two outputs alternating between on-off states and one each other in opposition.

First of all let's take again a first look to the circuit we saw in the previous post, here beside.

The links between the collectors and the positive supply Vcc up, and between emitters and ground down are dotted to indicate missing parts.
Suppose bjt1 on the right is interdicted while bjt2 is in saturation: if we connect both the collectors and emitters directly to the supply lines then the bjt1 would be charged quite entirely by the power supplier with the risk (depending by the bjt) to disrupt.

This suggests us to put a resistor in each branch: we choose between collectors and Vcc.

## Astable – How to think

Let's start from the definition.
An astable (multi-vibrator) device is one unable to keep one state firmly but continuously oscillates between two states.

Up-down, one-zero, forth-back, all-nothing: whatever the way is in which you consider them the goal is the alternation between only two conditions.

By concentrating on the hardware we want to realize it: so where to start from?

High and low signals as referred to a ground one are furnished by every transistor and this means it's our first brick in the wall: let's say a very common one is enough for the purpose (for example the cheap BCxxx family bjts).

What kind of alternation is possible in output?
Not as the value of signals in itself but as the activation and control of the on-off.

## Common Emitter. Why and how to

Common Emitter is an expression to indicate exactly an electrical configuration where a part on three of BJT transitor (and only that kind of transistors) is used as reference for the other two.
So keep in mind it's impossible to make confusion with other contexts.

But... what's an emitter, or a transistor? why bjt? I'm instead confused!
And you're right if never seen one of them, neither in theory exposition.

Generally a transistor is a semiconductor device which you can regulate voltage and/or current in output with; maybe its name's explanation could give a bit of information more: transistor is the contraction of "transfer resistor".
According to their inventors it's been so called "because it's a resistor or semiconductor device that can amplify electrical signals as they are transferred through it from input to output terminals". ...continue reading "Common Emitter. Why and how to"

## 4 – Op Amp: Ideal and real characteristics

In this lesson we will see what are the main characteristics of an Operational Amplifier.

We will try to understand what are the values that should characterize the ideal case.

And, finally, we will see how much the real case is close to the ideal case.

An ideal operational amplifier should have the following four characteristics: