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Selecting a firewall is not a trivial decision.  Generally all firewalls are software-based. The embedded firewalls are simply very limited-capability programs running on a low-power CPU in order to obtain lower power consumption. You have to list your needs and select the software and then the dedicated hardware that can handle them. As first step we need to list our needs for the firewall.

...continue reading "How to assemble a low cost firewall with professional capabilities"

And something else, which we'll start with before trying to regulate our traffic.

We'll use LEDs (Light Emitting Diode): 1 red, 1 yellow and... ?!?!
yes, 1 green.

In the first part every LED will be gradually turned from off to on and viceversa.

After that, the traffic lights:  just one LED on.

We need following stuff:
...continue reading "Manual and Automatic Traffic Lights"

This is an introduction of the method that we will use and offer in order to construct our self constructed hardware.Hardware projects can have various natures, can be analog or digital.Analogue electronics are the electronic systems that have a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals (usually) have only two levels.

...continue reading "Building Standalone Hardware from scratch"


In this article we will present one possible method to put a bootloader into a virgin Arduino's ATMega 328P.
We'll utilize :

  • Arduino 2009 board with power supply (via USB from PC or external);
  • A virgin ATMega 328P micro controller;
  • 4 wires.
Wire close up 1
Wire close up 2
Wire close up 3

...continue reading "Burn Arduino bootloader into ATMega328 (BitBang)"

test-without-bootloaderYou have an Arduino board and you bought a new ATMega328 microcontroller for new projects; after mounted it onto the board you discovered it doesn't work.
Why this?

In picture beside we can see something interesting: "avrdude" and specially "not in sync"; simply it's impossible to communicate or send datas to ATMega: it's not ready!

"Ready? what does it mean"!?
Think you have a baby: he's not ready to take care of himself, but you are, both for him and for you!

Same with microcontroller: control it by external hardware (adult to baby), or give it (baby) the way to become independent.

We're covering this second aspect, that needs a little piece of code.